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Embracing Democracy: Afghanistan, Iraq, & Prior U.S. Considerations

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Chapter Summary

The United States leads other countries, or groups of countries like the European Union, in imposing democratization. A content analysis of Afghani and Iraqi democratization follows in this chapter with the November-December 2001 Bonn Accord and the May-November 2003 Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) arrangements serving as the blueprints for Afghanistan and Iraq, respectively. The chapter addresses what might be called pre-pre-negotiations issues. It provides a backgrounder to the democratization formulas adapted and implemented in Afghanistan and Iraq. An appraisal of prior U.S. considerations in democratizing Afghanistan and Iraq suggests two fairly distinctive orientations (top-down and bottom-up approaches) adopting similar procedures. When attempted through the no-fly-zones to protect Kurds and Shi’as from Saddam's Revolutionary Guards, they proved to be a stepping stone towards splintering Iraq; yet when attempted through simultaneous support for Tadjiks and Pashtuns in Afghanistan, it really helped bring the country together.

Keywords: Afghani democratization; Coalition Provisional Authority(CPA); Iraqi democratization; Kurds and Shi’as; Pashtuns; pre-negotiation issue; Saddam's Revolutionary Guard; Tadjiks; U.S. democratization approach



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