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Sine Qua Non Democracy: Afghan-Iraq Symmetries & C.P.A. As Oddball

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Chapter Summary

Democracy of whatever stripes seems to be acquiring a sine qua non orientation rather than its staple quid pro quo format. Negotiating democracy/democratization internationally expands not only the electoral scope but also the checks and balances. Both Afghanistan and Iraq sought a new order once conflict ceased. Afghanistan's Northern Alliance (NA) and the Iraqi National Congress (INC), created in exile by Ahmad Chalabi in 1992, supplied both the local leaders to initiate the transformation and a blueprint to specify and implement. In the final analysis, Iraq fitted the U.S. pattern more than it did the United Nations. As the chapter's central finding, whether democratization is negotiated or imposed makes a difference. The chapter clearly finds several parallels between the structures envisaged at Bonn and by the CPA, between the end product and several of the thresholds leading up to the projected goal.

Keywords: Afghani-Iraqi parallels; Afghanistan's Northern Alliance (NA); Ahmad Chalabi; Bonn Conference; CPA; democratization internationally; Iraqi National Congress (INC); sine qua non



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