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Chapter Summary

Canada's organised crime provisions are among the most developed in the region. The hierarchy of offences set out in ss 467.11-467.13 captures different types and levels of involvement with criminal organisations and offers higher penalties for those more closely associated with the group. Unlike most other jurisdictions, Canada's offences are more suitable to criminalise core directors of criminal organisations as well as persons who only provide rudimentary support. The Canadian provisions operate simultaneously as new offences for criminal organisations and as aggravations to already existing offences. The criminal organisation offences initially only found modest application given the high threshold of the definition of criminal organisation.

Keywords: Canada; criminal organisation; organised crime



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