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Chapter Summary

Organised crime in Japan is frequently associated with the yakuza, the name for criminal syndicates that have evolved in Japanese society over the last 400 years. Historically, boryokudan comprised groups of outsiders including people involved in gambling, low-level crime, or protection rackets. During anti-organised crime campaigns in Taiwan, several key figures relocated to Japan, sometimes resulting in violent clashes and gangland killings involving Taiwanese groups operating in Japan. Japan's Criminal Code of 1907 is modelled after the Criminal Law of Germany that was conceived in the late 20th century. Outside the Criminal Code, there is some sentencing legislation which allows for the imposition of higher penalties on 'acts of intimidation, assault, and destruction of property committed by several individuals, or by showing the force of an enterprise or a group'.

Keywords: Boryokudan; Criminal Code; Japan; Organised crime; Yakuza



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