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Chapter Summary

This conclusory chapter is based on the rulings issued at church councils. However, it is interesting to note that in the Judaism of late antiquity attention was also given to Jewish faithful interacting with other groups - gentiles. The Mishnah is concerned with who is and who is not part of 'Israel' - those who accept the authority of Torah and Jewish Law. The council texts show that Christians found their way to their Jewish neighbors, often borrowing from their tradition, much to the chagrin of - e.g - John Chrysostom who attacks his faithful at the moment when they are most likely to find their way (again) to the synagogue. The steady Christianization of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onwards meant that the church gradually gained a certain position within society.

Keywords: Christians; church councils; Jewish; Judaism; Mishnah; Torah



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