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Chapter Summary

For much of the twentieth century, it was assumed that the course of Arabic-Islamic philosophy came to an end with Averroes. This demise of the philosophical tradition was often presented as a consequence of the hostility to 'philosophy' exhibited by influential Sunni Islamic scholars such as Ghazālī and Fakhr al-Din. A number of Indian and Ottoman scholars of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries engaged extensively and critically with the formal sections of the new logic handbooks by Bihārī and Gelenbevī. The present study has hopefully established beyond any doubt that the history of Arabic logic did not come to an end in the thirteenth, fourteenth, or sixteenth century. The discussion of relational inferences only really began in earnest with one of the many critical and fecund discussions by Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī.

Keywords:Arabic logical tradition; Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī



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