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Confessional Frontiers And Border Wars: The Confessionalization Of Bavaria And The Palatinate

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Chapter Summary

The court played an important role in shaping the religious identity of the Wittelsbachs territories through exercising the dynastys responsibility as territorial parents. The Palatine Wittelsbachs zeal in defending the land included offering refuge to Calvinist exiles from abroad who were supposed to make economic contributions to the territory. The Wittelsbachs efforts resulted in confessional frontiers and cultural border wars that reflected the confessionalization of Renaissance humanism. This chapter examines this process by first introducing the broader concept of 'defenders of the faith' within its cultural milieu, and then discussing the use of piety, church visitations, catechisms, universities, and schools within the context of territorial parents. This is followed by a discussion of how the Upper Palatinate reflected a house divided. Finally, it concludes with an analysis of how Marian pilgrimages and Calvinist refugee settlements contributed to the contours of confessional frontiers and dynastic tensions.

Keywords: Calvinist Exiles; Calvinist refugee settlements; confessionalization of Bavaria; Marian pilgrimages; Palatine Wittelsbachs; Upper Palatinate



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