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Regional Sub-State Diplomacy From A Comparative Perspective: Quebec, Scotland, Bavaria, Catalonia, Wallonia And Flanders

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Chapter Summary

Diplomacy is changing rapidly, both in nature and in content. This chapter studies the emergence of regional sub-state entities as diplomatic actors. An in-depth comparative study was made of the external activities of Quebec, Scotland, Bavaria, Catalonia, Flanders and Wallonia. These cases were selected because they are often cited in the literature as the most advanced examples of sub-state diplomacy, although authors may disagree on what this entails exactly within diverse domains. The following dimensions are explored in the chapter: (1) the definition of foreign policy; (2) diplomatic instruments that are utilized; (3) the organizational structure and operation of foreign affairs; and (4) the character of representations abroad. Based upon a comparative study of the empirical data, the chapter argues that boundaries between diplomacy (as generated by states) and sub-state diplomacy are visibly watering down.

Keywords: Bavaria; Catalonia; diplomatic instruments; Flanders; foreign policy; Quebec; regional sub-state diplomacy; Scotland; Wallonia



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