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The road to the 1999 Second Protocol

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Chapter Summary

This chapter addresses the question Why a Second Protocol to 1954 Hague Convention? On 13 March 2009, the Director-General of UNESCO received from the United States of America the instrument of ratification of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, entering into force immediately and, with some exceptions related to penal aspects, being self-executing. During the negotiations at the 1954 Hague Conference, the delegates made several concessions requested by the UK and US delegations, in the hope that they would become Parties to the Convention. The international community had to wait 55 years to see at least one of them (US) become a Party.

Keywords: armed conflict; Hague Convention; protection of cultural property; Second Protocol; UNESCO



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