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Chapter Summary

The chapter discusses the irregular elements and the possible motivations of the patrons for introducing these elements for each of the four Heavenly Court paintings separately. It attempts to identify the patrons of the murals in order to determine the personalisation of the Yongle gong murals. The chapter discusses two elements: particular ritual configuration of deities, Daoist priest image in the Toronto murals. The Nanan murals date probably to the late Yuan dynasty and no concrete information is known concerning their patrons. We can deduce from the murals that the patrons emphasised two major points in the design and representation of the Nanan Heavenly Court painting revealing their personalised wishes: basic ritual format in the Heavenly Court composition, de-emphasis of imperial, gures in the Nanan murals. The Beiyue Miao murals differ from other Heavenly Court paintings from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in almost every aspect.

Keywords: Beiyue miao murals; Daoist priest image; Heavenly Court paintings; Nanan murals; Personalisation; Toronto Murals; Yongle gong murals



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