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Chapter Summary

This conclusory chapter of the book reconstructs the creative process of Daoist Heavenly Court painting from the viewpoint of the accustomed practices associated to it with a strong emphasis on the role of Daoist ritual in this process. It claims that both ritual action and social identity have their impact on the final representation of a Heavenly Court painting and are the major factors in determining its variations synchronically and diachronically. The chapter discusses these two factors of ritual action and social identity in relationship of the four Heavenly Court paintings. It describes two theories: parallel development of painting and ritual, correspondence of identity. Even though painted in ca. 1270, the Beiyue Miao murals represent a Tang archaic model and the Yongle gong murals a much later Northern Song model but which was augmented in the Yuan period .The Toronto and Nanan murals, similar to the Yongle gong murals.

Keywords: Beiyue Miao murals; Daoist ritual; Heavenly Court paintings; Nan'an murals; Northern Song model; parallel development; Yongle gong murals



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