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Chapter Summary

In geographical terms, the problem of perceiving this fresh political organism on the map of the Europe of the day actually limits itself to the immediate neighbours of Poland from within the circle of the already established and literate Christian civilization. The first task that had to be performed was the tackling with the paradigm of traditional historical studies, which had a practice of considering political organizations of the earlier Middle Ages to be direct predecessors of contemporary states. In consequence a number of studies have been written in which mediaeval secular and ecclesiastical leaders are perceived as modern statesmen, patriots and ideologists concerned about their state, raison d’état, and the nation. The author realizes that some terms, for example: the Poles, Germans, or Poland, Germany, as well as the adjectives which were formed on the basis of these words, are inadequate with regard to the Middle Ages.

Keywords: Christian civilization; ecclesiastical leaders; Europe; Germany; Middle Ages; Poland



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