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Chapter Summary

The 19th century southeast Anatolian crescent-shaped area bounded by chains of mountains on three sides and the Mediterranean in the south, known as Adana Ovasi to the Ottomans, did not have much to do with either the earlier Cilicia or today's Çukurova. Modernization as an ongoing process was, in the 19th century, spreading according to the different imperialisms in different historical spaces in both the Ottoman Empire and European states, which left autonomies room to maneuver in regional construction and politics through appropriation by the regional populace. Analyzing a region in southeastern Anatolia beyond the central administrative construction of a province can rid us of binary demarcations between state and society in general as well as of the question whether the Tanzimat drew the periphery closer to the center or whether this process was 'negotiated'.

Keywords: Çukurova; Cilicia; Ottoman empire; Ottoman modernization



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