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Chapter Summary

The demonstratives in the Judaeo-Arabic letters from the Genizah are employed in a very different way to Classical Arabic. In the 11th-century letters, a clear distinction between pronominal and attributive demonstratives can be observed. There also appears to be a differentiation between anaphoric and cataphoric demonstratives in most cases. The varieties of Arabic use various negation particles for different functions. To give a comprehensive overview of the negation particles used in Judaeo-Arabic, this chapter is divided into three major parts. At first, general trends in the use of negation particles in Judaeo-Arabic letters are discussed, followed by an evaluation of the negation particles lam, , and laysa. The chapter then discusses the examples with negation particles in each of the corpora used for the analyses. It discusses the functions that the bi-imperfect holds in the modern vernacular and the emergence of the bi-imperfect in substandard writing.

Keywords: bi-imperfect functions; demonstrative pronoun; Judaeo-Arabic letters; modern vernacular; negation particles



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