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Chapter Summary

Germany was the cradle of the European printing press. And from the beginning of the fifteenth century, German printers played a major role in the distribution of the art of printing books throughout Europe. With the advent of printing classical texts in Greek and Latin, the Frankfurt book fair became the European center for booksellers and printers to buy, sell and exchange their stocks and for scholars to meet. Politics, religion and warfare often interfered with the free flow of books and the more liberal policies and practices in the Netherlands were often used to print and distribute controversial German texts. But while Czechoslovakia, France, Austria, Switzerland and to a lesser extent Turkey and Palestine became important early centers of German intellectual life in exile, it was the Netherlands that would become the major German-language publishing center for the exile communities.

Keywords: exile communities; French trade; German publishers; international publishing; Latin trade; nautical trade; Netherlands; religious trade



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