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July–August 1849

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Chapter Summary

As the tide started to turn against the Hungarians and as Avram Iancu's militia of Romanian peasants continued to resist in the Transylvanian mountains, the Hungarian government made a belated and ultimately futile attempt at concessions. For a brief moment the plan conceived by Bălcescu for converting Iancu's Romanian insurgent army into an ally of the Hungarians and the re-location of the anti-Russian campaign in Moldavia and Wallachia, seemed attainable. 'Blood tribunals', summary executions, forced religious conversions, the destruction of churches, were all part of the arsenal of violence used in the Hungarian- Romanian-Saxon conflict of 1849. Debates around the fate of the Hungarian and Polish revolutionary leaders and military who surrendered to Turkey after the defeat of the Hungarian war of independence caused a great deal of international tension between September and December 1849.

Keywords: Hungarian government; Moldavia; Romanian peasants; Russia; Turkey; Wallachia



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