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Chapter Summary

This chapter refers to the Romanian (or Danubian Principalities) of Wallachia and Moldavia as they were politically constituted until their unification in 1862 and their transformation into the Kingdom of Romania in 1881. By the fifteenth century, both Wallachia and Moldavia came under Ottoman control and were administered according to the principles of the dar al-‘ahd ('abode of the covenant') which guaranteed their autonomy in exchange for a regime of material obligations. In Romania, the main leaders of the revolution of 1848 belonged to the nobility and the gentry. Some came from the countries oldest and most prominent native boyar families of the first class, such as the Filipescu, Cretzulescu, Golescu, Ghica and Voinescu families. The overlapping texts of the Romanian exiles and of their French mentors and friends constitute a veritable "database" of the century, to use Le Guillou's description of Michelet's letters.

Keywords: Danubian principalities; French mentors; Jules Michelet; Moldavia; Ottoman state hierarchy; Romania; Wallachia



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