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This chapter explores the structure and the meaning of the two passages about the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael found in the two chapters of the Tosefta. The verse about Hagar, which is interpreted in the t. Sotah 6:6 is Gen 21:9:and Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, playing. Three exegetical motifs for this verse are said to come from sages of the school of R. Akiba. Hunting grasshoppers in it, and even eating them, is not forbidden in the Jewish culture. In contrast to what is found in the Mishnah, the compiler of the Tosefta seems to take for granted the fact that a halakah has to be supported by an interpretation of a biblical verse, an issue which was represented in the Mishnah as R. Akiba's novelty.
Keywords:Abraham; halakah; Ishmael sacrificed grasshoppers; Mishnah Sotah; Tosefta Sotah9789004188433 10.1163/ej.9789004188433.i-578 Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham en 10.1163/ej.9789004188433.i-578.76 Hagar in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan en
This chapter presents the figure of Hagar as described in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, a late Targum, but one which has preserved several of the traditions built around the figure of the maidservant of Sarah, the mother of Ishmael. Some of these traditions may be much older, as they are partially attested to in the Qumran texts, in Jubilees, or in the New Testament. The author has grouped the information gathered in his reading of the Targum Pseudo-Jonathan under three headings: the origins and status of Hagar, the description of Ishmael, and the dispute between Ishmael and Isaac. With regard to the description of Ishmael, in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan God accuses Ishmael of having abandoned the training Abraham gave him and more particularly of practising idolatry.
Keywords:Hagar; Isaac; Ishmael; Targum Pseudo-Jonathan9789004188433 10.1163/ej.9789004188433.i-578 Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham en 10.1163/ej.9789004188433.i-578.77 Many Nations and One God: Abraham in Hebrewhymns en
One of the main features in the collection of midrashic traditions about Abraham is the fact that his life is depicted as full of trials and tests. The depth and richness of biblical verses with regard to Abraham are repeated in numerous other verses of Hebrew hymnists from distinct periods and places, all focusing on a biblical patriarch and his lasting impact on beliefs and ideas within Jewish religious tradition. The examination of Abraham in Hebrew liturgical hymns adds to the complexity of attitudes in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam towards a key-figure who continuously has inspired generations throughout the ages both as a human being who passed the trials and tests of life, and as a man who kept his promise to God and therefore divine promise was fulfilled in him.
Keywords:Abraham; God; Hebrew hymnists; Islam; midrashic traditions9789004188433 10.1163/ej.9789004188433.i-578 Abraham, the Nations, and the Hagarites Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Perspectives on Kinship with Abraham en 10.1163/ej.9789004188433.i-578.82 Neither Jew nor Greek: Abraham as a Universal Ancestor en
The sons of Abraham, the recipients of the blessing and the promise given to Abraham, the seed of Abraham all these categories are newly demarcated by Paul to include the Gentile Galatians. Rather than spreading an ethnicity-free gospel, it is suggested, Paul proclaims a distinctly Jewish message which asks no cultural change from Jews, but a complete transformation from non-Jews. This chapter questions this Radical New Perspective on Paul, as it has been termed. The author examines the recent study on Paul's use of ethnicity and kinship by Johnson Hodge, who identifies herself with this perspective and focuses on Paul's appeal to Abraham in Gal 3, where one finds the core of his teaching as apostle to the Gentiles. Since the Radical New Perspective is a growing force in Pauline studies, it is appropriate to examine its interpretation of one of the core texts in Paul's Letters.
Keywords:Abraham; Gentile Galatians; Jews; Johnson Hodge; Paul