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Commemorating Abolition, 1807-2007

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Chapter Summary

This chapter focuses on the themes and arguments used in the recent public debate: the perception of the history of the Dutch slave trade and slavery and their abolitions, the persistent image of inferior blacks and racism, black consciousness and the Black Movement arising out of the black Diaspora. In the 20th century, several ways of expressing black awareness and of building a new black identity emerged in multi-ethnic Surinam, at first in hostile colonial setting, and after World War II in the era of autonomy. The chapter addresses the role or task in lifting the historiographical veil from academic and public historians and their institutions, in rethinking, rewriting and above all disseminating a new, shared grand narrative of Dutch history to a wider audience. In the 18th and 19th centuries, several plans were made for establishing new plantations in Africa, as a colonial alternative to plantations in the Caribbean.

Keywords:Africa; Dutch slave trade; Dutch slavery; historiographical veil; Surinam

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.18 Was Abolition of the American and British Slave Trade Significant in the Broader Atlantic Context? en

In the English speaking Atlantic World, the slave trade and its abolition received more attention in 2007, both from historians and from the general public, than in all the preceding ten or fifteen years together. Recent books on the slave trade have focused on the contribution of the slaves themselves to ending the trade, or on class differences in attitudes toward the slave trade. The traffic in slaves was after all, the most international of all business activities, and the American and British acts extended only to United States and British territory and their citizens. The effect for Africa was a fundamental shift South in the center of gravity of slave trading after 1780. An interpretation that focuses on the shifts in moral values across the Atlantic world moves away from one that puts British activism at center stage.

Keywords:American slave trade; Atlantic World; British abolition; British slave trade; United States

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.30 The Limited Impact of 1808 in Brazil en

Between 1550 and 1850, more than 12 million Africans were forcibly shipped to the New World to work there as slaves. The process of emancipation in Brazil was not only long, drawn-out process, but also a process of legislative change; it was not the product of violent wars of independence, as in most of Latin America, or of civil war, as in the United States. Britain was subsequently able to exert more pressure on Brazil after its declaration of independence from Portugal in 1822, as the new state sought to achieve diplomatic recognition from the major powers. Of importance for the longevity of the slave system in Brazil was also the fact that the diversity of slave occupations was matched by an extremely diffuse pattern of slave ownership.

Keywords:Brazil; emancipation; slave system; United States

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.31 Revolution and Emancipation: The Role of Abolitionism in Ending Slavery in the Americas en

The British anti-slavery movement was initiated by Granville Sharp, who had first focused on securing a judgment from the High Court that the holding of slaves in England was illegal – the celebrated Mansfield judgment of 1772. Slavery in the Americas was suppressed in one territory after another, in events extending over a little more than a century from the 1770s to the late 1880s. The ending of slavery was only secured by the bloody ordeal of a fratricidal Civil War. Abolitionism was a product of the age of revolution, though the abolitionists often hoped that their goal could be reached by entirely peaceful means. The slave-based economies produced sugar and coffee, core items of the new regime of mass consumption, itself linked to waged labor. The great acts of emancipation coincide with decisive turning points in national life, with the onset of war, civil war, revolution or narrowly-averted revolution.

Keywords:abolitionism; Americas; British anti-slavery movement; emancipation; narrowly-averted revolution

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.36 Abolition from Below: the 1808 Revolt in the Cape Colony en

This chapter argues that to appreciate the rebels' actions, one need to break with the methodological nationalism that underpins South African exceptionalism and draw on the Many Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic, in which Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker transform our understanding of labor and resistance in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The chapter examines the revolt and responses to it using the available evidence, which consists mostly of trial records and government correspondence. The Cape colony was established by the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), which needed a rest-stop for ships travelling from the Netherlands to South Asia and Indonesia. The abolition of the slave trade and investigation into the illicit trade in slaves contributed to their anxieties. Lord Caledon was constrained by the imperatives of a modern empire and shared many of the War and Colonial Office's concerns.

Keywords:British abolition; cape colony; Lord Caledon; slave trade

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.42 Slavery After the Abolition of the Slave Trade: the United States and the British West Indies en

Relations between the abolitionist movements in the United States and the United Kingdom have been frequently and systematically described. In the British discussion of abolition and emancipation, the event recently receiving the greatest attention among scholars and by the public has been the abolition of the slave trade. The post-emancipation economic performance of the ex-slave economies in the West Indies (and elsewhere) were influenced by several local characteristics. The basic national Constitutional provisions regarding slavery were the clauses regarding white (not slave) political representations, and the rules regarding the international slave trade. Post-emancipation production patterns in the British West Indies varied, with some islands continuing sugar production, but others showing rather long-term or even permanent declines in sugar production.

Keywords:abolitionist movements; British West Indies; international slave trade; United States

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.52 The Abolition Act and the Development of Abolitionist Movements in 19th Century Europe en

An unprecedented wave of humanitarian reform sentiment swept through the societies of Western Europe, England, and North America in the hundred years following 1750. Among the movements spawned by this new sensibility, the most spectacular was that to abolish slavery. Slavery was an important topic in late-18th century European philosophical and anthropological as well as juridical and political debates. However, there was by no means a clear development towards its unanimous de-legitimization. The British government as well as British non-governmental abolition activists used the platform of the Vienna peace conference to extend their abolitionist policies, and win over other European powers to reject the slave trade. A well-known German political activist leaving the country for the United States after taking part in revolutionary attempts in the 1830s was Karl Follen.

Keywords:abolitionist movements; British non- governmental abolition activists; Europe; slave trade

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.60 As Always, the Trouble Is with the French. Britain, France, the Netherlands and the Colonial Labor Market in the 19th Century en

For most of the 19th century, France and Britain were rivals in the world beyond Europe. French ideas about the suppression of the international slave trade and the abolition of slave labor were seen as a litmus test for modernity. During the twenty years between the foundation of the Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade and the ending of the slave trade, innumerable arguments for and against the trade had been exchanged. Before the treaty with Great Britain, the French had some experience in recruiting indentured laborers in India. The French government, on the other hand, seemed to have had far fewer scruples, because it was never under pressure from a strong abolitionist lobby, and public opinion simply seemed not interested in the conditions of the colonial labor markets. The case of the Netherlands seems to prove the contrary.

Keywords:Britain; colonial labor market; France; international slave trade; Netherlands

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.64 What Came After Emancipation? a Micro-Historical Comparison Between Cuba and the United States en

Post-emancipation developments, against a background of different forms of slavery, present a wide-ranging field for research. The literature of sociological generalization is particularly extensive in relation to slavery in the United States. A comparison between Cuba and the United States seems from today's perspective to be inherently very asymmetrical – an asymmetry that is necessarily all the more marked in relation to works that have very different approaches to slavery and post-emancipation in their themes, methods, and regional specializations. The common spatial basis of slavery has been identified conceptually either in terms of the big picture of Atlantic slavery,the early homage to cultural blackness or the image of a plantation America. New Orleans became the metropolis of a new internal slave trade in the United States. Elections were held in Cuba as early as 1879, still under Spanish rule.

Keywords:Atlantic slavery; Cuba; post-emancipation; United States

9789004188532 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556 Humanitarian Intervention and Changing Labor Relations The Long-term Consequences of the Abolition of the Slave Trade en 10.1163/ej.9789004188532.i-556.70 Land Policies in Jamaica, 1830–1940 en

Sidney Mintz and Douglas Hall showed that the small agricultural producers of Jamaica managed to develop an internal market system in the lap of slavery". Plantations and small producers found themselves in a contradictory and ultimately antagonistic relationship, which has persisted even until today, and has transformed itself into a fundamentally new structure. In Jamaica, the confrontation between planters and freed slaves was particularly harsh, and culminated in the Morant Bay Rebellion of 1865. In the mid-1930s, the whole Caribbean area witnessed significant social unrest, which culminated in the rebellion of 1938 in Jamaica. A survey of the land-settlement-schemes yields the following results: from 1929 to 1949, a total of 116 parcels of land comprizing about 120,000 acres were bought by the government at an average price of £ 5,9s per acre.

Keywords:antagonistic relationship; Caribbean; Jamaica; land-settlement-schemes; morant bay rebellion

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