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On Humanity, Chapter 19

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Chapter Summary

This chapter brings the section on kindness towards animals to a close with an explanation of two Deuteronomic injunctions, both of which have something to do with the use of oxen, 22:10 and 25:4. Nelson begins with the law in Deut 25:4 which forbids muzzling an ox while it is threshing. It was widely recognized that oxen made the most effective draught animals, though mules could be employed as well. Comparison with 1 Cor 9:9 - 10;1 Tim 5:18; and b. B. Mes. 88b indicates how readily the provision would have lent itself to application in the human realm. Earlier Philo had identified nature as the most important element in agricultural production.

Keywords:Deut 25:4; draught animals; humanity; Josephus; Philo



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