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The Procedure Of Peacemaking

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Chapter Summary

The nature of the Crimean relations with both its northern neighbors: Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania, discloses numerous analogies. The Crimean khans, at least officially, regarded both northern rulers as their tributaries, who were expected to send tribute on time and to apply for solemn yarliqs, confirming their possessions. The Polish envoys, sent to the khans from Cracow and then Warsaw, were likewise typically recruited from among the royal courtiers and secretaries, to mention only Marcin Broniowski, Lawryn Piaseczynski, or Florian Oleszko. As the Lithuanian and Polish envoys to the Crimea usually did not speak the Tatar language, the embassies were joined by interpreters. The peacemaking procedure required an exchange of oaths that also took place during the farewell audience. The royal envoy took an oath on behalf of the king and the khan pronounced his oath in the envoys presence so that the latter could confirm this fact before his lord.

Keywords: Crimean embassies; Crimean khan; farewell audience; Peacemaking Procedure; Poland-Lithuania; Polish envoys; solemn yarliqs; Tatar language



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