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Chapter Summary

Most political personifications depicted in the Classical period were general and optimistic. The Classical period saw increases not only in the number of political personifications but also in the variety of art works on which they appeared and in the public exposure of these art works. While Athenian artists were innovative in their use of visual personifications, historical sources suggest that Athenians lagged behind the rest of Greece in worshipping them. Cults for personifications popularly shown in the last third of the fifth century are not attested in Attika until the fourth century. Most political personifications were popular in one of the three periods: before the Peloponnesian War; in the years of the Peloponnesian War and its aftermath; or in the era from the Second Athenian Confederacy to the Battle of Krannon.

Keywords:Athens; Attika; classical period; Peloponnesian war; political personifications



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