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Chapter Summary

This chapter examines the social significance of deaconesses as teachers in primary and elementary schools in the nineteenth century. The first two sections will address the development of popular education in Europe and Sweden from the early modern period through the nineteenth century. Third, in the more sparsely populated areas, the distances between some homes and the parish school were often too long, and the roads to these schools were typically in poor condition. First, it was difficult to teach children who came from impoverished conditions and who thus were exposed to what was perceived as immorality outside the school. First, as women connected to the household sphere, deaconesses would have been perceived as obvious candidates to nurture children and to instruct girls in such domestic skills as sewing and knitting. Second, many of the employers were either individuals or organizations strongly influenced by the neo-evangelical revival.

Keywords: deaconesses; education; Europe; neo-evangelical revival; school; sewing and knitting; Sweden; teachers



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