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Chapter Summary

For the Naqada period when analysing and describing possible trade/ exchange between the Naqada cultures of Egypt and the A-Group culture of Lower Nubia one does not have the luxury of texts such as the autobiography of Harkhuf or tomb decoration such as the New Kingdom tomb of Rekhmire. Based on accounts as Harkhuf 's journey to Yam and on some of the material remains themselves, for instance an ebony label bearing the name of King Aha, various assumptions have been drawn as to what commodities the Egyptians were importing from Nubia. These include such items as gold, ebony and semi-precious stones. Ivory, has traditionally been seen as a commodity sought by the Egyptians rather than the other way around although importing raw materials and subsequently exporting the material as a finished manufactured product is not a modern economic invention.

Keywords: A-Group culture; commodity exchange; ebony; Egyptian; gold mace; Harkhuf; ivory; Lower Nubia; Naqada



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