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Diverging Roads, 1630–1653

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Chapter Summary

The three major confessional groups: the Dutch Reformed, the other Protestants (mainly Anabaptists and Remonstrants) and the Catholics developed clearly differentiated ways of applying emblematic, allegorical imagery between 1630 and 1653. This chapter demonstrates how Hulsius encountered growing opposition in the Dutch Reformed Church to the use of emblematic imagery in a religious context. Most significant was the resistance of the Utrecht professor Gisbertus Voetius, for his emancipatory support of Teellinck. Hulsius' second emblematic work, published in 1642, was published as a collection of emblemata nuda, emblems without pictures. For the Catholics, the 1630s also brought a change: the first illustrated religious volumes based on the iconography in Hugo's Pia Desideria were printed in the Republic, soon to be followed by various religious works of Joost van den Vondel which clearly articulated the Catholic identity, although not through the use of allegorical religious images.

Keywords: allegorical imagery; Anabaptist; Catholic emblematic tradition; Dutch picture Bible; Dutch Reformed; emblemata nuda; Gisbertus Voetius; Hulsius; Pia Desideria; Remonstrant



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