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Chapter Summary

In the Balkans, Frankish Greece and Asia Minor, most of the period between 1204 and 1453 witnessed political fragmentation, insecurity and ceaseless warfare between small political entities, which had too few resources to control large territories, conduct long campaigns and recruit large armies. It seems that the soldiers who were maintained through pronoia grants were the most effective part, though not the majority, of the native soldiery. Infantry soldiers were very useful when they were placed under the command of effective leaders and when they were used properly and in response to the geographical and tactical demands of the battlefield. This conflict led to the imprisonment and disgrace of the most prominent generals, including the emperor's close relatives, and to rebellions. The political and military context during the period under discussion was completely different from that of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

Keywords: Balkans; campaigns; Infantry soldiers; political entities; pronoia; twelfth centuries



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