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Chapter Summary

This chapter defines the 'third party' in atrocities and military conflicts. It looks at different stages and distinguish between three time periods related to the atrocities and international crimes committed, and understanding of the role can be changed with hindsight. The chapter describes different levels of analysis and the roles of the actors. The roles of the bystanders at individual, societal, national and international level will be scrutinized taking into account their relation towards the other two actors, the perpetrators and the victims. The chapter elaborates on the moral and legal responsibility of the bystander. Moreover it compares the socalled Atrocity Triangle with the Conflict Triangle and show the complex analysis of the combined triangles with more than five thousand possible interactions in the chapter. The bystander roles of Sweden and Denmark during the Second World War will illustrate the complexity of the interactions and roles within combined triangle.

Keywords: Atrocity Triangle; bystanders; international crimes; military conflicts



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