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7 Internal Waters and Ports

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Chapter Summary

This chapter explores international legal issues related to internal waters and ports. Internal waters are located on the landward side of the baseline and include lakes, rivers, bays, historic waters, and many ports. A port, where cargo and passengers are loaded or unloaded, is generally an integral part of the coastline. However, ships may also anchor and load or unload cargoes at roadsteads or deepwater ports at a distance from the coast. The chapter also explores whether foreign vessels have a right of access to ports. It analyzes the resolution of conflicts of jurisdiction that arise when foreign flag vessels and their crews are present in internal waters. Finally, the chapter considers port state jurisdiction and control over foreign flag vessels pursuant to treaties regulating environmental, safety, and labor matters; these treaties have led to an enlarged scope for port state jurisdiction.

Keywords: baseline; bays; foreign flag vessels; internal waters; lakes; maritime ports; rivers



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