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CHAPTER TWO: THE ORIGINS OF NATIONAL HUMILIATION AND SOURCES OF THE REVOLUTION

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Chapter Summary

The deterioration of China's national position and the low morale of the people during the past are largely attributed to the unequal treaties. The implementation of the unequal treaties constitutes a complete record of China's national humiliation. The three-century regime of the Ming was overthrown by the concurrent blows of the roving bandits of Li Tzech'eng and the "Banner Soldiers" of the Manchus. Under the enslavement and brutal repression of the Manchus, China's original excellent academic tradition became greatly corrupted. The development of nationalist and democratic ideas aroused the particular hatred of the Manchus. China's international relations from the Opium War to the 1911 Revolution are divided into three periods. The first period dates from the Opium War to the war of [the year of] Chia Wu [Sino-Japanese War of 1894], with the Treaty of Tientsin [1858] marking a decisive turning point.

Keywords: 1911 revolution; Chia Wu; China's national humiliation; Manchu dynasty; Ming dynasty; Opium war; treaty of Tientsin; unequal treaties

10.1163/9789004212732_004
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