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Chapter Summary

The Nationalist Revolution had its origin in the state's distress and the suffering of the people. The unequal treaties even went a step further in destroying China's national defenses. Sun Yat-sen also pointed out that the issuing of currency notes by foreign banks in China caused China to suffer a heavy loss. From the Sung to the Ch'ing dynasties, the state gradually came to depend upon the wealth and tribute of the southwest. The effects of the unequal treaties upon Chinese society are studied in relation both to the social structure, and to social traditions and popular morale. This chapter discusses the effects of the treaties on the social structure. The evil effects of the concessions and consular jurisdiction upon China's ethics were limitless. Every national humiliation and every clause in the unequal treaties serves as a basis for self-examination and self-criticism.

Keywords: Ch'ing dynasty; China's ethics; China's national defense; national humiliation; Nationalist revolution; social structure; Sun Yat-sen; unequal treaty



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