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Chapter Summary

This chapter points out several basic problems in building up the state, which are the key to its success or failure, in the hope of arousing the vigilance of the Chinese citizens as well as encouraging them. It points out the lessons from the successes and failures of the Revolution of 1911. Sun Yat-sen saw that the basis of the success of the revolution lay in the psychological reconstruction of the people. The reason for the success of the destructive part and the failure of the constructive part of the 1911 Revolution was entirely due, as pointed out by Sun Yat-sen, to the people's "knowledge" or "lack of knowledge". Following the reformation at the end of the Ch'ing dynasty, there came in succession the 1911 Revolution, the May 4th Movement, and the Nationalist Revolution. Chinese political philosophy analyzes the relation between ethics and law with the greatest minuteness and clarity.

Keywords: 1911 revolution; Ch'ing dynasty; Chinese law; Chinese political philosophy; nationalist revolution; psychological reconstruction; social reform; Sun Yat-sen



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