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Enrico Lombroso was born in 1910 to Alfredo Lombroso of Verona. Disheartened by the most severe pain of learning that by law he would not have the right to be considered an Italian, Lombroso sent his application letter for discrimination to the Special Secretariat of the Head of Government as early as October 1938. In this letter he described himself as the most faithful Black Shirt he enrolled in the Fascist Youth Organization at the age of 11. Lombroso became in 1926 the founder of the first journal of Fascist Youth in a middle school of Verona. Lombroso's rhetorical skills emerge from the concluding portion of his letter, the only one in this collection with the explicit date indication of Fascist Era, in which he assured Mussolini that for someone like me, who believing in God Almighty has refused religions and focuses on the mysticism of Fascism.
Keywords:application letter; Enrico Lombroso9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_025 Lumbroso Besso Lia en
Tacchi Venturi's archive contains the correspondence between the Jesuit and Lia Lumbroso Besso, and her son, Giacomo Lumbroso. The latter's application was supported by Tacchi Venturi in his letter to Undersecretary Buffarini of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, in which he wrote that he had presented Lumbroso's petition with honour and pleasure. The Demorazza Committee, however, turned the application down, because Giacomo descended from parents who were both Jewish, although converted to Catholicism. Tacchi Venturi's archive contains also his correspondence with the Vice-Head of the Police regarding the imprisonment of Attorney Giuseppe Lumbroso and his son, Attorney Michele Lumbroso, in 1944,183 but their blood relation to Lia Lumbroso Besso and her son is unknown.
Keywords:Demorazza Committee; Lia Lumbroso Besso; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_026 Melli Ida Tiziana en
Ida Tiziana Melli was born 26 March 1909 to a mixed couple from Padua. Melli used her teaching skills also in propaganda conferences and courses for Fascist women that were organized by the Padua Female Branch of the Fascist Party, to which she belonged. With governmental support, she also published a number of Italian tourist guides, as she highlighted in her signed application letter from 19 December 1938. The bishop of Padua advocated her case in a letter to Cardinal Secretary of State Pacelli, who immediately forwarded the pertinent documentation of Melli to Tacchi Venturi. Apparently, Ida Tiziana Melli was unrelated to Roberto Melli, Rosa Melli, and Gustavo Melli, whose applications for discrimination are extant in the same archive.
Keywords:Ida Tiziana Melli; Padua; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_027 Melli Roberto en
Roberto Melli was a painter, sculptor, and an art critic. In 1902 he moved to Genoa, where he published his first xylographs in the periodical Ebe. In his articles, he sought to promote young Aryan artists and to identify the features of modern Italian paintings within the limits of the Italian characters expressing the race. In 1912 he married Anna Meotti, a Catholic woman, and 20 years later he was baptized in the Roman Basilica San Paolo Fuori le Mura. The racial laws deprived him of membership in the Fascist Party and in the professional union. He was prohibited from receiving offficial commissions and from selling or exposing his works, which compelled him to live in precarious conditions until the end of the war. After the war, Roberto Melli taught painting at the Accademia di Belle Arti of Rome and became the main representatives of the socalled Roman School.
Keywords:Roberto Melli; xylographs9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_028 Migliau De Benedetti Bellina en
Bellina Migliau was born to Leone Migliau and Susanna Foa, Italian Israelites of Turin, on 25 February 1868. At the time she submitted her application for discrimination in January 1939, she was living in Alessandria in the region of Piedmont. With her husband Marco De Benedetti she had three daughters. Bellina Migliau concluded her very concise application letter with a wish that the committee take into consideration the sense of Italianism that had been harboured not only in her own family but also in her grandparents. As he noted on the copy of Migliau's letter, Tacchi Venturi - who interceded - received from the government an oral confirmation in February 1939 that there was a hope that the request would be granted thanks to Ines's special civil merits. It is unknown, nevertheless, whether that hope ever materialized.
Keywords:Alessandria; Bellina Migliau; Marco De Benedetti9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_029 Milla Angelo en
Attorney Angelo Milla was born on 29 February 1892 and lived in Milan. Milla highlighted in his application letter, dated 17 December 1938, that he served his Fatherland with fervour both in time of war and peace: he was wounded as an officer during the Great War, for which he received the War Merit Cross, and he donated to the government some of his veteran assets in 1936, which was recorded in the National Appreciation Great Book. Attorney Milla claimed, using sophisticated jurisprudence language, that Article 10 of the Royal Decree could not affect his family at all, for all its members were Catholic, and, since 1932, they had publicly abjured those faiths and traditions that they deprecated for a long time. The four documents cited in Milla's concise application letter, including the act of abjuring Judaism, are not preserved in the archive of Tacchi Venturi, who interceded.
Keywords:application letter; Milan; Milla Angelo9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_030 Milla Edoardo en
Edoardo Milla was born to Virginio Milla and Luisa Tedeschi Magnani. Among many merits of Milla's mother, the letter cites her founding of the Hygiene Awareness Association in Milan and her membership in various organizations that assisted victims' families during the Great War, for which activity she received many recognitions, whose copies were attached to the original application. Luisa Tedeschi Magnani's daughter rendered similar services during WWI, for which she too was awarded merit certificates and medals. Tacchi Venturi supported Milla's application in a letter to Secretary Le Pera, but no governmental response is to be found in Milla's file. The Jesuit's archive contains, too, the application of Angelo Milla from the same city of Milan and of Guido Milla of Florence, but the lack of biographical details in the preserved documents does not allow us their blood relations to be established.
Keywords:Luisa Tedeschi Magnani; Milla Edoardo; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_031 Modena Marcello en
Marcello Ottavio Giacomo Modena was born 19 May 1913 in Villa Ospizio. Based on his breathless research, Marcello obtained a parochial certificate proving that he was actually baptized privately by his anxious maternal grandmother just before he set off with his parents for the long and dangerous trip to Tripoli. Indeed, Marcello's parents did not have him circumcised or enrolled in a Jewish community, either in Reggio Emilia or in Tripoli. Modena's application letter is the only one in the present collection that explicitly mentions the support for Aryanization of the Vatican Secretariat of State. Indeed, Cardinal Maglione solicited Tacchi Venturi's help in obtaining it, but the Jesuit's intercession proved ineffective - Marcello Modena was declared as belonging to the Jewish race in spite of providing additional documentation, such as his baptism certificate, countersigned by the bishop-prince of Reggio Emilia, Eduardo Brettoni.
Keywords:Modena Marcello; Reggio Emilia; Tacchi Venturi; Tripoli; Villa Ospizio9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_032 Orvieto Angiolo en
Angiolo Orvieto was born on 18 June 1869 in Florence. Orvieto was an associate, counsellor, and treasurer of the Italian Dante Society, for which he renovated with his own money its centre, the Palagio of the Wool Merchants Guild, a 13th-century palace in Florence. After the Italian conquest of Libya, Orvieto - together with Sidney Sonnino, Leopoldo Franchetti, and others - founded and became vice-president of the Italian Society for the Study of Libya. During the Great War, Orvieto presided over the Leonardo da Vinci Society, which promoted militant patriotism in Florence. Orvieto's application contains also the information about his brother, Adolfo, and his wife and cousin, Laura Cantoni, the daughter of Achille, whom he married in 1899. Angiolo's application, unlike his brother Adolfo's, was nevertheless successful, as the Italian government wrote in May 1940 to Tacchi Venturi, who had interceded.
Keywords:Florence; Great War; Laura Cantoni; Orvieto Angiolo; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_033 Ottolenghi Carlo en
Attorney Carlo Ottolenghi was born to Vittorio Emanuele and Ida Sraffa on 3 January 1889 in Rome. Carlo Ottolenghi was a patriotic student activist in the period preceding the Great War. Among other activities, in 1908 he participated in the committee for the glorification in Campidoglio of Giosuè Carducci, the first Italian poet to receive the Nobel Prize. As he wrote in his application letter, Carlo Ottolenghi never professed the Jewish religion, nor did he participate in the activities of any Jewish community, to which he, nevertheless, officially belonged. Cardinal Maglione of the Secretariat of State forwarded the Ottolenghi documentation to Tacchi Venturi, who interceded with Undersecretary Buffarini by writing him an unusually long letter, in which he highlighted the ironic situation of Carlo Ottolenghi, who had married an Aryan Catholic woman, had given his children a Christian education, and had himself converted to Christianity.
Keywords:application letter; Great War; Ottolenghi Carlo; Rome; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_034 Paggi Mario en
Mario Paggi was born on 9 June 1894 in Pitigliano near Florence. Quite unusual for discrimination applications is Paggi's longer paragraph entitled My position before Judaism. Contrary to the common view of the Jewish race, Paggi continued, he was not good at science but excelled in composition. Indeed, he became a journalist. Shortly before the Great War, he had directed a student paper in Florence, I Gogliardi. Unlike his brother Guido, who was a decorated Fascist official, Mario Paggi was not granted discrimination, for he did not possess the required Merit War Cross. Instead, the Prefect of Florence ordered that Paggi be interned in the camp of Pizzoli near L'Aquila for precautionary reasons. The support of the Florentine Jesuit, Alfonso Martin and of the Vatican, and the repeated intercession of Tacchi Venturi with the head of Police, Carmine Senise, resulted in his liberation.
Keywords:discrimination applications; Florence; Great War; Paggi Mario; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_035 Parasol Feliks Ryszard en
Feliks Ryszard Parasol was born on 23 June 1905 in Czestochowa. Dr Feliks Parasol appealed to the Police Office in Turin and the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Rome. In his application, he asked that they take into consideration his absolutely unique case so that he could obtain the benefit of remaining in Italy, his second Fatherland, where he had spent 13 years studying and working in full harmony with the directives of Fascism, making friends, and meeting a woman who would become his companion. The Archbishop of Turin, Cardinal Maurilio Tossati, asked Tacchi Venturi for help in a letter written on 26 December 1938. The Central Database of Shoah Victims' Names lists numerous Polish Jews who bore the name of Parasol, including some from Feliks Parasol's hometown of Czestochowa, who may have been related to him, but no precise family ties among them could be established.
Keywords:Czestochowa; Parasol Feliks Ryszard; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_036 Pereyra de Leon Giorgio en
Dr Giorgio Pereyra de Leon was a renowned Florentine ophthalmologist - he was director of the Pius Eye Hospital in Florence and professor at the University of Florence. With the help of his lawyer, Luigi Boniforti, who exchanged a number of letters on the matter with Tacchi Venturi, their father, Giorgio Pereyra de Leon, sent a separate application for discrimination, for he had requested to volunteer in the ranks of the Red Cross during WWI, despite his weak health condition, and had been enrolled in the Fascist Party since 1933. Tacchi Venturi's archive contains a draft of a warm letter of support for Pereyra de Leon's children that the Jesuit wrote to a governmental official, but no response to it is to be found there.
Keywords:application for discrimination; Pereyra de Leon Giorgio; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_037 Prister Renzo en
Renzo Prister, was born 1 September 1879 into the Jewish family of Moisé Prister and Amalia Pincherle. Renzo's native city, Trieste, determined his political views and activities. Renzo's brother Marco, who shared his political views, paid for the same cause with his life - wounded in the battle of Oslavia, he died in the military hospital of Vicenza 29 November 1915 while declaring his allegiance to Italy and her King. His mother did not even ask the future government of Italy for a stipend for her fallen son, because of her patriotism, Renato explained in his application letter for discrimination, to which nine certificates were originally attached. No further information about Renzo Prister is available in the archive of Tacchi Venturi, to whom his application arrived via Pietro Gaudenzi of the Accademia d'Italia. The latter must have known the Jesuit, as the envelope preserved in the archive testifies.
Keywords:application letter; Renzo Prister; Tacchi Venturi; Trieste9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_038 Salmon Massimo en
The surgeon Massimo Salmon was the son of Alberto Salmon and Elvira Ambron, Jews from Florence, where he was born 13 December 1906 and lived on Via de' Banchi. To his application letter for discrimination, written a few days after his 32nd birthday, Salmon attached ten certificates (not extant) aimed to prove that, as he put it, he embraced the Catholic religion, did not share the political views of his race, and totally adhered to the national and Fascist ideals. Indeed, he joined the Fascist Party as early as in 1928, when he was just 21, and enrolled in its special division known as University Militia. Salmon volunteered for the Italian war in Africa but was declared unfit due to his health problems. Cardinal Mercati, warmly recommended Dr Salmon's case to the Vatican Secretariat of State, which forwarded the pertinent documentation to Tacchi Venturi.
Keywords:application letter; Florence; Massimo Salmon; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_039 Scazzocchio Graziano en
Among four children of Graziano Scazzocchio, a Roman Jew, and Giovanna Baraffael, three females were baptized at birth, and the only male was left at liberty to decide about his choice of religion in his adult age. In December 1938 Graziano and Giovanna submitted their application letter for discrimination, for they and many of their children had been unwillingly enrolled in the Jewish Community due to the fact - they explained - that their mother was considered Jewish, even though she was the daughter of a mixed marriage and her Jewish father had converted to Catholicism before 1896, as had her husband in August 1938. The Vatican supported the Scazzocchio case - Pacelli's substitute, Monsignor Domenico Tardini, recommended their petition to Tacchi Venturi, who intervened with Undersecretary Buffarini. The Jesuit's archive contains no governmental response.
Keywords:application letter; Graziano Scazzocchio; Jewish community; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_040 Seppilli Giuseppe en
Seppilli was originally from the Adriatic city of Ancona, home of an old community of Sephardic Jews. He volunteered as medical officer during the Great War and requested to serve in the zone of combat. Among 26 other merits listed in his letter (and confirmed by photographs of the documents that were originally attached), Seppilli wrote that he was named Knight and Commander of the Crown of Italy, and Knight of SS Maurice and Lazarus. While waiting for the governmental reply, Professor Seppilli died the day after the death of Pius XI. Recalling their father's merits to the Fatherland, the three children sent another petition for discrimination, which was supported by the Vatican Secretariat of State. Cardinal Maglione customarily forwarded the request to Tacchi Venturi, who interceded with Undersecretary Bufffarini. In 2009, the Lombardy regional authorities named a newly erected residence for the handicapped in Brescia after Professor Giuseppe Seppilli.
Keywords:Giuseppe Seppilli; Great War; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_041 Sinigaglia Giorgio en
Dr Giorgio Sinigaglia was the Chief Surgeon of the Civil Hospitals in Brescia, where he lived on Via Leonardo da Vinci 14. He was born in Bozzolo (Mantua) on 20 May 1886. Sinigaglia became a member of the Fascist Party in 1932, and three of his unnamed four children (aged 14, 12, and 10) were enrolled in the Fascist youth organizations. The bishop of Brescia, Giacinto Tredici, wrote a warm letter to the Vatican Secretariat of State, asking him to support Sinigaglia's application for discrimination. He highlighted in it Dr Sinigaglia's widely recognized honesty and lack of sectarianism in his work as physician. Cardinal Maglione forwarded his request, accompanied by a copy of the doctor's application to Tacchi Venturi. The latter immediately interceded in a letter written to Secretary Le Pera. In reply, the government informed the Jesuit that Sinigaglia's application was being investigated.
Keywords:Dr Giorgio Sinigaglia; Fascist party; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_042 Sonino Guido en
Guido Sonino, a contemporary of Giulia Allatini, was born 10 April 1871 to Girolamo Sonino and Alaide Levi. As he highlighted in his application for discrimination, submitted in December 1938, this business proved crucial to the British Navy during the Great War and soon after. After the war Sonino extended his business activities by joining the IRIS Company in Marzabotto, of which he was president until the promulgation of the racial laws. Among many photographs of documents that Sonino attached to his application, which are preserved in Tacchi Venturi's archive, there is a picture of him as the founder of the House of Fascio of Bologna, to which he contributed 5,000 Liras. Cardinal Maglione of the Vatican Secretariat of State forwarded his application, together with those of the Jews Umberto Cava, Walter Cardoso, and Leonfrancesco Orvieto, to Tacchi Venturi.
Keywords:Great War; Sonino Guido; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_043 Sonnino Flavio en
Flavio Sonnino is a Neapolitan. As he put it in his application letter for discrimination from 1 December 1938, his ancestors had lived in Italy from time immemorial, including the cousin of his father, Sidney Sonnino (1847-1922), the twofold prime minister of Italy. Since 1916 Sonnino had directed a national industry of shoes, F. Sonnino & Co., located in Caronno Milanese, where he collaborated in the creation of the local branch of the National Fascist Party, which he joined in 1927, as did his wife and sons. Tacchi Venturi advised Ms. Bettina Roncoroni, whose mother was close to the Jesuit, that Sonnino could obtain discrimination only on the base of his exceptional merits, but the committee had suspended its meetings. The Jesuit's archive does not contain information about whether Flavio Sonnino's case was reconsidered.
Keywords:application letter; Flavio Sonnino; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_044 Uzielli Paolo en
I am a son of Jewish parents. With these words Colonel Paolo Uzielli began his application letter for discrimination, of which a summary is found in Tacchi Venturi's archive. Colonel Uzielli began his military career very early, following the example of his paternal uncle, Professor Gustavo Uzielli, who had been a Garibaldi veteran and a volunteer in the 1899 war. Bishop Gioacchino Bonardi of Florence recommended Uzielli's case in a letter to Tacchi Venturi, in which he described the colonel as a good and righteous person, a great officer and a true gentleman. No governmental reply to his request of discrimination is extant in the Jesuit's archive, and other sources do not provide information about his fate.
Keywords:Colonel Paolo Uzielli; Tacchi Venturi9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_045 Zacutti Giulia en
From a copy of the application that Giulia Zacutti sent to Tacchi Venturi with attached documents, it is found that she was born in 1885 in Padua to Ciro Zacutti and Annetta Udine. Giulia declared herself a fervid believer in Fascism and an enemy of any subversive Communist or Masonic organization. Indeed, she relates that in 1924, a vile communist had assaulted her in Florence. Zacutti entered the female branch of the Fascio and since 1936 had held a title of visitatrice in the Fascist Mario Gioda Group in Turin. The case of Zacutti was warmly recommended by the Curia of the archbishop of Turin, which contacted Tacchi Venturi, and by the Vatican's Secretary of State, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli. Tacchi Venturi wrote the undersecretary of Internal Affairs, Guido Guidi Bufffarini, asking him to consider Zacutti's application because she had many merits, for which she was entitled to be declared Aryan.
Keywords:Aryan race; Giulia Zacutti; Tacchi Venturi; Zacutti's application9789004222410 10.1163/9789004222410 “Pouring Jewish Water into Fascist Wine” en 10.1163/9789004222410_046 Zacutti Tullio en
Tullio Zacutti and his son Giorgio were dismissed in 1938 as a result of the racial laws. Tullio's letter from November of that year to the Ministry of Internal Affairs on behalf of himself and his son expressed his surprise, for he had been born in Venice 15 February 1878 to a mixed marriage. Zacutti's last argument in his letter, concluded with his Fascist greetings, was that I and my family have no fortune, we have lived a modest and honourable life from the fruit of my own work and that of my son Giorgio. The government, nevertheless, declared him twice as belonging to the Jewish race, in spite of the intercession of Tacchi Venturi, who received the material of the Zacutti case from Cardinal Maglione, who, in turn, had been asked for support from a priest of the Ethiopian College in Addis Abeba, where Giorgio Zacutti had been living.
Keywords:Giorgio; Jewish community; Rome; Tacchi Venturi; Tullio Zacutti; Tullio's letter