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Citizenship and Migration

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Chapter Summary

Social science treatises often discuss citizenship in this sense. 'Integration' used to be regarded mainly as a natural process, but in the Netherlands, since the Integration Act came into force on 1 January 2007, it has been organized as a cognitive process, in courses leading to examinations. This trend has turned the meaning of legal citizenship on its head. Instead of legally recognizing actual participation (being integrated) it became a legal tool for delimiting who is and is not entitled to participate fully in political and social life. Multiculturalism based on mutual respect and mutual interest would provide scope for gradual integration. The acquisition of citizens' rights in the Netherlands was organized accordingly in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Migration contributes to social, economic and cultural changes that no-one has ever assumed to be without problems.

Keywords: Citizenship; Integration; Migration; multiculturalism



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