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VIII. Mixed Models of International Criminal Justice

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Chapter Summary

The Security Council's establishment of the Commission of Experts to Investigate Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the former Yugoslavia in October 19921 broke the silence of the international community on major issues of international criminal justice (ICJ) that began after the completion of the post- World War II prosecutions. The 1999 conflict in Kosovo was the first to involve the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). After the breakup of the former Yugoslavia beginning in 1991, what is now called the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) found itself engulfed in an armed conflict involving the three main ethnic groups, the Serbs, Croats, and Muslims, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 150,000 to 250,000 individuals, in addition to widespread sexual violence and mass population displacement. International recognition of the need for PCJ evolved contemporaneously with a new era of the UN's peacekeeping role.

Keywords:Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH); international criminal justice (ICJ); Kosovo

10.1163/9789004231696_009
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