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Chapter Summary

This is the introductory chapter of the book which outlines how white European forced labor provided by convicts became increasingly common in fringe regions of Brazil until its independence in 1822. The process of exiling convict labor to the former colonies sheds light on several aspects of Portuguese society, penal reform in Portugal, and the overall colonization efforts of the Portuguese in Africa, especially Angola. "The history of colonization by Whites of the Portuguese African Colonies continues to be one of the least explored themes in (Portuguese) colonial history, in spite of its importance to the history of Portugal itself". In 1901, the Lisbon Geographical Society hosted a conference on the (Portuguese) colonization of its African colonies and Francisco Xavier da Silva Telles compiled a detailed report on the limitations and possibilities of forced colonization to Angola.

Keywords: Angola; Brazil; forced labor; Portuguese



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