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6. Comparisons and Conclusions

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Chapter Summary

The Portuguese were close observers of both the French and British penal systems. In reality, the Portuguese system was modeled more closely on the French in Guiana than any other imperial power or locale. There were major similarities and differences among these three systems of penal exile, although it is also clear that the French were close observers of the British system in Australia. Outlining these allows for some comparisons and shows the Portuguese system as parallel but not identical with penal systems used by these other European powers. The Portuguese used special punishment cells within the Luanda Depósito, sentences to the fortress in the harbor of Luanda, or difficult work assignments in the interior as methods of secondary punishment. A better understanding of the Portuguese military presence in Africa, particularly the composition and use of its troops, would facilitate future research on convict labor.

Keywords: British penal system; convict labor; French penal system; Guiana; Luanda Depósito; Portuguese; secondary punishment

10.1163/9789004254312_008
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