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Punishment (1643–1667)

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Chapter Summary

Historians of early modern Europe sometimes refer to the "century of the Guzmáns" in the Hispanic Monarchy, pointing to that extensive clan's enormous influence over the governments of the Spanish empire. The century ended more or less with the fall of Olivares in 1643 or the death of Haro in 1661, though not everyone agrees that the latter belonged to the family. In any case, this century coincided with the Medina Sidonia's maximum power and splendor, supported by the growth of Lower Andalusia in general and the Guadalquivir basin in particular, including the cities of Seville, Cádiz, and Sanlúcar de Barrameda. Throughout the century of the Guzmáns, the Medina Sidonia also were linked by blood to the validos (when the king had one). So though they were geographically distant from the court, these Andalusian dukes managed to make their opinions and authority matter in the circles around the Catholic monarch.

Keywords: Castile; Catholic monarch; duke; early modern Europe; Lower Andalusia; Medina Sidonia

10.1163/9789004255753_006
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