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8. The Independence of the Gospel of John: Some Observations

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Chapter Summary

It is important that an indisputable example can be given of two mutually independent uses of Gospel traditions: Paul's use of eucharistic traditions in 1 Cor 10:3-4, 16, 17, 21; 11:23-34 and parallel in Mark 14:22-25. It is seen that the agreements between John 2:13-22; 6:51-58 and Synoptics are neither closer, nor more striking, than those between the Pauline passages and Mark. In case of John 5:1-18 there are even fewer agreements with Synoptics. Moreover, both Paul in 1 Cor 10 and John in ch. 6 identifies eucharistic bread with the biblical manna. The relationship between Johannine tradition and the parallel Synoptic tradition echoes the relationship between Pauline Gospel traditions, as in 1 Cor 7:10-16; 9:14; 10:3-4, 16, 17, 20-21, and 11:23-29, and the pre-Synoptic tradition. These observations have strengthened the hypothesis that John and the Synoptics are mutually independent. This chapter looks at John's independence in a broader scale.

Keywords: biblical manna; eucharistic traditions; gospel of John; gospel traditions; Johannine tradition; Mark; Paul; Synoptics

10.1163/9789004258853_009
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