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From Militia Woman to Emakume

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Chapter Summary

This chapter analyzes two myths regarding femininity within the context of the Spanish Civil War in the Basque country; the myth of the militia woman and of the emakume. The reestablishment of an order of gender in connection with the two figures, which include the gudari and the emakume, constituted a fundamental element in the task of legitimation of the Basque government and in its main mission: the constitution of the Basque state. The figure of the Basque mother or emakume was at the center of the moral construction of the Basque state in the juncture of the war. The figure of the nurse restored harmony, demonstrating the efficiency of the complementary gender hierarchy. In addition to showing the tragedy of death and defeat, the X-ray of war painted by Aurelio Arteta helps the reader decipher the instruments furnished by the Basque society at the time to confront the conflict.

Keywords: Aurelio Arteta; Basque country; Basque nurse; emakume; gudari; militia woman; Spanish Civil War



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