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9. Revolution as Restoration: Meanings of “National Essence” and “National Learning” in Guocui Xuebao

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Chapter Summary

The author examines how the Guocui writers promoted geming as restoration through developing the notions of guocui and guoxue. The goal of the New Policies was to establish modern systems of control and mobilization, including a parliament, local self-governance, a national school system, and a national transportation network. Published in the Anglo-American International Concession of Shanghai, Guocui xuebao was aimed at those who were perplexed and animated by the abolition of examinations. During the first three years of the Guocui xuebao, from 1905 to 1908, this dichotomy between national learning and imperial learning was the main theme of many articles, expressing the wishes of the Guocui writers to take control of the cultural field. More important, through the symbol of "the Zhou", the Guocui writers promised the educated elite that they would have a bigger role to play in the new Chinese nation.

Keywords: Guocui xuebao; imperial learning; national learning



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