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Chapter Summary

This chapter presents a valuable document which describes in great detail the procedure of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper in the Reformed Netherlands of the mid-1600s. The Council of Trent at its thirteenth meeting on 11 October 1551 decreed that in the sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, after consecrating the bread and the wine, Jesus Christ as the true God and true man was really, truly, and substantially present in all things manifest; the Reformed ideal of communion set itself against this categorically. One expression of the rejection can be found in the Heidelberg Catechism of 1563, a binding document for the Netherlands that gained status as an official creed at the Synod of Dordecht in 1618/1619, which is mentioned as a reference text in Hartmann's report as the "Heidelbergsche agenda". The Catechism called the Mass a "Verleugnung" (denial) and "vermaledeite Abgötterei" (accursed idolatry).

Keywords: Heidelberg Catechism; Holy Eucharist; Reformed Netherlands



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