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Open Access Deregulation of the tin trade and creation of a local Shadow State: A Bangka case study

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Deregulation of the tin trade and creation of a local Shadow State: A Bangka case study

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Chapter Summary

This chapter examines how power was transferred from the old tin regime to the new, and to what extent the practices of the tin business are under the control of the local government. What benefit does this business bring the people of Bangka? Why did the tin smuggling mafia emerge, and why is it so difficult to prevent? To what extent are local state actors involved? The chapter also examines the emergence of the Shadow State at the local level and how it operates, making the black economy in Bangka so difficult to prevent. To examine the practices under the district head's tin ordinances, the chapter analyses two cases, involving people known in Bangka as the Tin Kings (Raja Timah); here the author refers to them as Tin King I and Tin King II. One can see how their business practices involve bureaucrats, politicians, the police, preman, and NGOs.

Keywords: Bangka; NGOs; preman; Shadow State; Tin King I; Tin King II



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