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2 Development in the Third/Ninth Century

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Chapter Summary

This chapter observes a unity of creedal expression that laid the groundwork for a self-sufficient and internally coherent Ḥanafite theology. It discusses the emergence of a distinct theological profile for eastern Ḥanafites as early as the beginning of the third/ninth century, and as such it only required the sustained elaboration of its doctrines for an autonomous and distinct school of kalām to come into existence. This development transpired in an impressive manner. Thus the theology of Transoxania can hardly have been influenced by any decisive factors from the middle to late third/ninth century, which also means that a certain development was delayed there which elsewhere had taken place rather quickly. By comparison, the theological topics that dominated Baghdad only arose with comparable virulence in Transoxania more than fifty years later.

Keywords: Ḥanafite theology; eastern Ḥanafites; kalam; Transoxania



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