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3. Early Socialism in the Balkans. Ideas and Practices in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria

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Chapter Summary

Based on the principles of social solidarity and justice, socialism arose as a challenge to a response to the social costs of modernization. Originating in Western Europe, it spread across the world and became an ideology and contributed to the broadening of democracy in the modern era. This chapter presents an overview of the ideas and practices of early socialism in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria in a comparative perspective. It analyzes the ideas of the socialist thinkers in the three countries, the revolutionary and reformist currents in the respective socialist movements, and the relationship between trade unions and socialist parties, as well as the connection between internationalism and patriotism in the socialists' views on the "national question". Special attention is paid to how socialist ideas were adapted to the conditions of the agrarian and traditional Balkan societies in the attempt to catch up with the West.

Keywords: Balkan societies; Bulgaria; early socialism; internationalism; patriotism; Romania; Serbia; Western Europe



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