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Nation, Ethnicity, and the Post-Manchukuo Order in the Sino-Korean Border Region

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Chapter Summary

Chinese, Korean, and western scholars alike have generally referred to the existence of rigid ethnic designations, Han and ethnic-Korean, in the mid to late 1940s in Yanbian. As a result, in the immediate post-war period, Chinese Communist administrators and cadres in Yanbian continued to refer only to the existence of 'Chinese people' and 'Korean people', much as their Japanese predecessors had. It took considerable time and effort for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to begin to recast the Koreans in Yanbian as ethnic-Koreans of the broader Chinese nation, an achievement which reflected the true beginnings of a post-war and post-Manchukuo order. The Sino-Japanese Treaty of 1915, also known as the Twenty-One Demands, carved out special economic rights for Japanese nationals living in China. Japan immediately began to argue that the Twenty-One Demands therefore obligated the Chinese government to provide the Koreans with various privileges in Yanbian and Manchuria.

Keywords: Chinese Communist Party (CCP); ethnic identity; Manchuria; post-Manchukuo order; Sino-Japanese Treaty; Yanbian



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