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Age, climate and intra-annual density fluctuations in Pinus halepensis in Spain

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Chapter Summary

This chapter uses a dense and diverse dendroclimatic network in Spain to establish the frequency variation of Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in Pinus halepensis, and determines the climatic factors which promote IADF formation, as well as whether the processes are age dependent. The study was carried out in the Mediterranean area in Spain, at 35 different sites with different climatic conditions. IADF frequency in Pinus halepensis proved to be age dependent and showed an asymmetric bell-shaped distribution with its maximum at the cambial age of 27 years at breast height. IADF frequency varies across the geographical distribution of P. halepensis, with a clear geographical/environmental gradient. In contrast, under colder and dryer conditions in autumn, the presence of IADFs is scarce. Spatio-temporal analysis revealed that IADF formation is strongly related to warm conditions in summer, dry conditions in late spring and summer, and wet conditions in late summer and autumn.

Keywords: Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs); Pinus halepensis; Spain; spatio-temporal analysis



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