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Chapter Two: Geographical and Environmental Data

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Chapter Summary

The southern Jordan Valley and desert fringes of Samaria are two neighbouring geographic units, west of the River Jordan, in the eastern part of Palestine. The geological structure of the desert fringes of Samaria, west of the southern Jordan Valley, is connected to the Wadi Far'ah anticline, which runs from north-east to south-west. Some of the different types of soil in the Jordan Valley and desert fringes of Samaria were created from the erosion of brown clay alluvium or grey limestone of the surrounding hills, and some by the weathering of the Lisan marl. The main factors for the formation of desert climatic conditions are the location of the Jordan Valley east of the Samaria hills, and its distance from the Mediterranean Sea. The decrease in precipitation and temperature from west to east, from the hills and desert fringes to the Jordan Valley, affects plant life.

Keywords: desert fringes; Mediterranean Sea; Palestine; Samaria; southern Jordan Valley



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