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Chapter Summary

Andrew makes his appearance in history in the Gospel of Mark. That no reliable tradition existed about him in the ancient church is shown not only by the silence of the Acts of the Apostles but also by the fact that Luke and Matthew omit even Mark's impersonal references to Peter's brother. As early as John, the historic Andrew has been replaced by the legendary Disciple-Apostle. It is certain that Pseudo-Epiphanios and Pseudo-Dorotheos did in the ninth century set up Andrew the First-Called of the Apostles against Peter the Prince of the Apostles, by imagining Andrew as founder of the Patriarchate at Byzantium in direct opposition to the Roman claim to Peter as first Bishop of Rome. The Gnostics and Manichaeans used the apocryphal "Acts of Andrew" to oppose the canonic teaching of the New Testament. Andrew as a figure in Christian art makes a rather late appearance.

Keywords: acts of Andrew; Byzantium; Christian art; Gnostic-Manichaean teaching; gospel of Mark; New Testament; pseudo-Dorotheos; pseudo-Epiphanios; Simon Peter



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