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9. Demography and Migration

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Chapter Summary

This chapter focuses on the role of demography in comparative sociology, describing the key features of population processes in modern societies and how they vary across countries. At the heart of comparative demography lies the demographic transition model. This model describes how societies change over time, moving from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In addition to the impact of births and deaths, the size and composition of national populations are strongly affected by the movement of people within and across societies. The most common form of migration is that from the countryside to the city. Nations' policies on immigration and citizenship vary greatly. In poorer countries, migration is even more often tied to major and violent conflicts. There are now an estimated 200 million international migrants in the world, living outside of their own countries.

Keywords: citizenship; civil conflicts; demographic transition; infant mortality; labor migration; mass immigration



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