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Chapter Summary

This bibliography presents a list of books and articles relevant to the study of anti-Semitism in the ancient world. It must be borne in mind that the expressions of anti-Semitism in word and deed are limited in time and place. Regarding time, they derive from the two centuries before and the two centuries after Christ. If we distinguish between anti-Semitism in deed and in word, then the commencement of the former must be dated in the second century B.C., the time of Antiochus Epiphanes. The outbreak of hatred and persecution of the Jews under this monarch had a political background. Both the Jewish accounts of these events, and also the way in which diverse pagan writers mention Antiochus' action plainly indicate that a fierce hostility towards the Jews became manifest at that time.

Keywords: ancient world Jews; anti-Semitism



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